Incredible India - “Unity In Diversity”

In the national flag of India, the top band is of Saffron colour, indicating the strength and courage of the country. The white middle band indicates peace and truth with Dharma Chakra. The last band is green in colour shows the fertility, growth and auspiciousness of the land The Chakra: This Dharma Chakra depicted the "wheel of the law" in the Sarnath Lion Capital made by the 3rd-century BC Mauryan Emperor Ashoka. The chakra intends to show that there is life in movement and death in stagnation.

Capital : New Delhi
Financial capital : Mumbai
Dialing code : +91
Currency : Indian Rupee
Continent : Asia
Official Languages : Hindi & other 21 local Languages, English is widely spoken
Important words and meanings :
Namaste : Hello
Dhanyavaad : Thank you
Aap kaise hain : How are you
Aapka naam kya hai : What is your name
Mera naam (name) hai : my name is (name)

India, officially the Republic of India (Bhārat Gaṇarājya), is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country (with over 1.2 billion people), and the most populous democracy in the world.

Protected by the great Himalayan mountain ranges spreaded over the north to north East, bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the south-west, and the Bay of Bengal on the south-east, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west; China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the north-east; and Myanmar (Burma) and Bangladesh to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives; in addition, India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia.

Home to the ancient Indus Valley Civilisation and a region of historic trade route and vast empires, the Indian subcontinent was identified with its commercial and cultural wealth for much of its long history. It was also known as “Sone Ki Chidiya”. The number Zero (0), Yoga and Ayurveda (an alternative medicine therapy) have originated from India

Four religions originated here – Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikkhism whereas Zoroastiranism, Judaism, Christianity and Islam arrived in the 1st millenium CE and also shaped the region’s diverse culture.

India is a federation composed of 29 states and 7 union territories.

North/North West India :

Bihar, Jharkhand, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Rajasthan

East/North East India :

West Bengal,Odiisha, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh*, Assam*, Manipur*, Meghalaya*, Mizoram*, Nagaland*, Tripura* (* known as seven sisters)

Central India :

Chattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh

West India :

Gujarat, Maharashtra, Goa

South India :

Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Tamilnadu, Karnataka, Kerala

Union territory :

Diu, Daman, Dadra & Nagar Haveli, Chandigarh, National Capital Territory of Delhi, Puducherry,Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Lakshadweep

Art & Culture :
Dance :

Classical Dance forms :

Bharatanatyam, Kathakali, Mohiniattam, Kathak, Odishi, Manipuri, Kuchipudi

Folk Dance forms :

Garba, Raas, Tippani, Bhavai, Ghummar, Kalbelia, Bhangra,Geedha, Bihu,Chhau, Goti Pua, Jhumur, Koodiattam............and many more

Martial art form :


Other :

Bollywood dance (performed on the Indian film songs)

Music :

Classical music :

Hindustani & Carnatic

Folk music :

You will find in every corner of India

Bollywood music :

The Indian film songs

Literature :

The Epics :

The Rig Veda- a collection of sacred hymns (1500 – 1200 BCE), Ramayana & Mahabharata, Bhagvad Gita

Classic Sanskrit literature :

Shakuntala & Meghdootam (plays written by Kalidas), Svapnavasavadattam by Bhasa, Ratnavati by Sri Harsa. Geet Gobindam by Jaydeva, Chanakya’s Arthashastra & Vatsyanana’s Kamasutra, geetanjali by Rabindranath Tagore.

Festivals :

National festivals :

Independance day (15th August), Republic Day (26th January), Mahatma Gandhi Jayanti (02nd October)

Religious festivals :

Deepawali/Diwali (the festival of lights), Makar Sankranti (kite flying), Pongal,Lohri, Vasant Panchami (Spring), Mahashivratri, Holi & Dhuleti (the festival of colours), Rakshabandhan (the festival of bonding of brothers and sisters), Ganesh Utsav, Krishna Janmashtami, Navratri (Garba- a folk dance being performed for 9 nights), Durga Puja, Dussera, Buddha Purnima, Mahavir Jayanti, Eid, Christmas, Easter, Gudi Padva/Poila Baishak/Chettichand/Visu/Baisakhi, Pateti

Languages :

India, a potpourri of different cultures, religions and beliefs, is home to not just one or two languages but to an uncountable number of different lingual families. Languages belonging to the two major language families - Indo Aryan and Dravidian - are spoken by more than 90% of the people of India.

India is considered to be home to 461 languages, out of which 14 have been reported to be extinct. But still there is not a single Indian language that is spoken across its length and breadth. Hindi is spoken by a majority of North Indians, but it is not a popular means of communication in the southern part of India. Similarly, South Indian languages such as Tamil, Telugu, and Malayalam are not understood by the people of North India. For the convenience of people, the Constitution of India has recognised 22 languages as the official languages of India. These are known as Scheduled Languages and constitute the major languages of the country.

Major spoken languages :

Hindi, Gujarati, Marathi, Punjabi,Urdu, Bengali, Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, English

Indian Seasons (Rutu) :

Vasant Rutu/ Spring :


Grishma rutu/Summer :

April – May

Varsha rutu/Rainy :

June – August

Sharad/Autumn :

September – October

Hemant Rutu /Pre Winter :

November - December

Shishir or Shita rutu/Winter :

January – February

Major Religious places :

Hindu :

Yamnotri, Gangotri, Kedarnath, Badrinath, Amarnath, Dwarka, Mathura – Vrundavan, Varanasi (Kashi/Banaras), Nathdwara, Pushkar, Somanth, Ujjain, Jagannath Puri, Shirdi, Shani Shingnapur, Rameshwaram, Tirupati, Meenakshi Mandir, Guruvayur, Sabarimala....

Muslim :

Ajmer Sharif, Khwaja Salim Chishti Dargah at Fatehpur Sikri, Jama Masjid, Haji Ali

Sikh :

The Golden Temple at Amritsar, Hemkund Sahib – Uttarakhand

Buddhist :

Sarnath, Bodh Gaya

Jain :

Sankheshwar, Shetrunjay, Delwada

Parsi :

Agyari at Udvada

Christians :

St Xavier’s Church at Goa

World Heritage sites of India :

There are 32 World Heritage sites in India recognised by the UNESCO. The list is :

  • Kaziranga Wildlife Sanctuary, Assam
  • Manas Wildlife Sanctuary, Assam
  • Great Himalayan National Park, Himachal Pradesh
  • Nandadevi & Valley of Flowers National Park, Uttarakhand
  • Sundarbans National Park, West Bengal
  • Western Ghats – Sub clusters of Agastyamalai, Periyar, Anamalai, Nilgiri, Kudremukh, Talakaveri, Sahyadari
  • Mahabodhi Temple Complex at Bodhgaya, Bihar
  • Konark Sun Temple, Odisha
  • Buddhist monuments at Sanchi, Madhya Pradesh
  • Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka, Madhya Pradesh
  • Group of monuments at Khajuraho, Madhya Pradesh
  • Humayun’s Tomb, Delhi
  • Qutub Minar and its monuments, Dehli
  • Red Fort Complex, Delhi
  • Taj Mahal – Agra, Uttar Pradesh
  • Agra Fort, Uttar Pradesh
  • Fatehpur Sikri, Uttar Pradesh
  • Jantar Mantar – Jaipur, Rajasthan
  • Keoladev National Park – Bharatpur, Rajasthan
  • Hill Forts of Rajasthan – Chittorgarh, Kumbhalgarh, Ranthambore, Amber Sub Cluster, Jaisalmer, Gagron
  • Champaner – Pavagadh ArcheologicalPark, Gujarat
  • Rani ni Vav - Patan, Gujarat
  • Ajanta Caves, Maharashtra
  • Ellora Caves, Maharashtra
  • Elephanta Caves, Maharashtra
  • Chatrapati Shivaji Terminus (Victoria Terminus) railway station, Maharashtra
  • Churches and Convents of Goa, Goa
  • Group of monuments at Pattadakal, Karnataka
  • Group of monuments at Hampi, Karnataka
  • Great living Chola Temples - Brihadeeswar temple of Thanjavur & Gangaikonda Cholapuram, Airavateshwar temple,Tamil Nadu
  • Group of monuments of Mahabalipuram, Tamil Nadu
  • Mountain Railways of India – Darjeeling Himalayan Railway, Kalka Shimla Railway, Himachal Pradesh, Nilgiri Mountain Railway – Ooty, Tamil Nadu